Jump to main content
Jump to site search
Access to RSC content Close the message box

Continue to access RSC content when you are not at your institution. Follow our step-by-step guide.



Determination of prescribed and designer benzodiazepines and metabolites in influent wastewater

Abstract

Benzodiazepines are important prescription pharmaceuticals used to help in the treatment of anxiety and sleep disorders. However, they also have a strong potential for abuse. In this respect, illicit benzodiazepines, i.e. not prescribed in Australia and designer benzodiazepines, which are new compounds that are not legally prescribed in any jurisdiction, have emerged in the illicit Australian market in recent years. Designer benzodiazepines are a new class of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and are particularly dangerous due to limited toxicity information and propensity to be mistaken for conventional benzodiazepines, leading to severe side effects and potentially death.It is therefore important to assess the prevalence of the use of these compounds in the community. The current work presents a sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for 20 prescribed and designer benzodiazepines and metabolites: 7-amino nimetazepam, alpha-hydroxy alprazolam, alprazolam, clonazepam, delorazepam, deschloroetizolam, diazepam, diclazepam, etizolam, flubromazepam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, lormetazepam, meclonazepam, midazolam, nimetazepam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, pyrazolam and temazepam. Quetiapine, a prescription sedative drug that has been diverted for non-medical use, was also included. Limits of quantification were predominantly below 10 ng/L, except for the ubiquitous oxazepam, quetiapine and temazepam, which were between 75-300 ng/L. Stability, recovery and matrix effects were also examined. Finally, this method was applied to influent wastewater from South Australia, which showed the presence of many benzodiazepines including the NPS etizolam.

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
18 Mar 2020
Accepted
26 Jun 2020
First published
30 Jun 2020

Anal. Methods, 2020, Accepted Manuscript
Article type
Paper

Determination of prescribed and designer benzodiazepines and metabolites in influent wastewater

R. Bade, M. Ghetia, J. M. White and C. Gerber, Anal. Methods, 2020, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/D0AY00560F

Social activity

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements