Perfluorosulfonic acid polymer based eATRP for ultrasensitive detection of CYFRA21-1 DNA†
The sensitive detection of biomarker cytokeratin fragment antigen 21-1 (CYFRA21-1) is crucial for early diagnosis and screening of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this work, an electrochemical biosensor based on Nafion-initiated eATRP has been built for ultrasensitive detection of CYFRA21-1 DNA for the first time. Specifically, peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes are immobilized onto a gold electrode surface and then hybridized with target DNA to form PNA/DNA heteroduplexes for the subsequent attachment of Nafion by the identified carboxyl–Zr4+–phosphoric acid chemistry. Finally, polymer chains are obtained by linking the monomer of ferrocenylmethyl methacrylate to the PNA/MCH/DNA/Zr4+/Nafion probes via eATRP. Under optimized steady-state conditions, the sensor offers a wide current response for CYFRA21-1 DNA from 10−11 to 10−16 M with a detection limit of 6.42 × 10−17 M. The proposed method of using Nafion as the eATRP initiator exhibits high sensitivity, reproducibility and stability and is a promising strategy for early diagnosis of NSCLC.