Recent advance in the analysis methodologies for microplastics in aquatic organisms: Current knowledge and research challenges
The widespread occurrence and high bioavailability of microplastics have increasingly attracted wide attention to society. Because of the presence of microplastics in aquatic organisms, it is necessary to investigate their abundance in different species. Recently, the diversity of research methods of microplastics in aquatic organisms causes different detection rates of microplastics, and problematically, different results are poorly comparable. As a new global environmental problem, there is an urgent need to reach consensus on the investigation and analysis methods of microplastics. How to establish standardized methods for microplastics in aquatic organisms is a scientific problem to be solved urgently in the research of microplastics. The current review systematically summarizes the recent progress in extraction, separation, quantitative analysis and qualitative identification of microplastics in aquatic organisms. The advantages and disadvantages of different methods are discussed. Additionally, challenges faced by the development of standardized analytical methods for microplastics are discussed from sampling representativeness of aquatic organisms, control of background values, analysis of nanoplastics, and application of identification technology. It is also pointed out the necessity and urgency of the standardization of analytical methods for microplastics.