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Fast determination of five chiral antipsychotic drugs using dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with capillary electrophoresis

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Abstract

This study developed a new method for the extraction, clean up, chiral separation, and determination of five pairs of phenothiazine drugs using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with capillary electrophoresis (CE). A mixture of extraction solvent (30 μL of CHCl3) and dispersive solvent (200 μL of tetrahydrofuran) was rapidly injected using a syringe, which formed tiny cloudy droplets of an organic extractant that dispersed entirely into the aqueous phase. After centrifuging, the sediment phase of volume 60 ± 0.5 μL was transferred into a small vial and evaporated to dryness. The residue was reconstituted in 5 μL of aqueous solution, analyzed using CE and then successfully baseline separated in 6 min using a background electrolyte composed of 5 mM hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin, 0.9% poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), and 150 mM tris-formate at pH 3.0. The developed method was linear in the 0.01–10 μM range, with R2 ≥ 0.9956 for all target analytes. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) and the limit of quantification (S/N = 10) were 2–4 nM and 10 nM, respectively. Excellent repeatability (RSD ≤ 5.5%, n = 5) was achieved. The recoveries of all phenothiazine drugs from urine were in the 83.5–104.0% range. The advantages of this approach were low cost, versatility, simplicity, and high sensitivity.

Graphical abstract: Fast determination of five chiral antipsychotic drugs using dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with capillary electrophoresis

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
29 Dec 2019
Accepted
05 Mar 2020
First published
19 Mar 2020

Anal. Methods, 2020, Advance Article
Article type
Paper

Fast determination of five chiral antipsychotic drugs using dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with capillary electrophoresis

M. Hsieh, T. Chiu and S. Chen, Anal. Methods, 2020, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C9AY02776A

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