Enzyme-based paper test for detection of lactose in illicit drugs†
Lactose is commonly used as a cutting agent in illicit drugs. Currently, presumptive field color test kits for illicit drugs do not test for the presence of lactose or other cutting agents. A method was developed to detect lactose on a paper-based test card. A three-enzyme system comprised of lactase, glucose oxidase, and peroxidase was used to break down lactose into peroxide, which was then detected with a redox indicator. The test can detect lactose concentrations as low as 5% in solid samples and shows no interference when lactose is mixed with illicit drugs or commercial pharmaceuticals. Prepared test cards were stable on the shelf for up to five months. In a blinded study of samples composed of mixtures of heroin, methamphetamine, cocaine HCl, crack cocaine, fillers, and lactose, the sensitivity for detection of lactose across three readers was 100% and specificity was 96.4% (n = 96). When this test was incorporated into a 12-lane test card for the detection of illicit drugs, readers were correctly able to identify the illicit drug and the presence of lactose with 99.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity (n = 54). This test is a robust and affordable way to detect lactose in illicit drug samples.