Diagnosis of cancer at early stages based on the multiplex detection of tumor markers using metal nanoclusters
Traditional cancer diagnosis strategies are not considered by most people until the last resort, which delays many cancer treatments leading to advanced stages. Tumor marker sensors show great potential for detecting cancer because of its cost-effective and harmless checking procedures. Normally, one tumor marker is detected each time by using one type of sensor, but the accuracy to declare cancer is not always satisfied. Metal nanoclusters are ultra-small nanomaterials with low toxicity, distinct optical properties, catalytic activities, and cost-effective performance. Some metal nanoclusters have been designed to detect more than one tumor marker in a single step. The consideration of combined parameters using such facile sensing strategies has the potential to simplify the test procedure, and increase the diagnostic accuracy of early cancer. Therefore, various sensing strategies for the multiplex detection of tumor markers using metal nanoclusters are summarized.