Two-dimensional MXene modified AgNRs as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate for sensitive determination of polychlorinated biphenyls†
Ultrathin two-dimensional MXene nanosheets were decorated on the surface of silver nanorods (AgNRs) through a facile modification strategy to prepare highly sensitive and reproducible SERS substrates (AgNR/MXene substrate). The MXene nanosheets could suppress the oxidation of the silver nanorods, which endows the substrate with good stability and reproducibility. Due to the strong interaction between AgNR/MXene and the analytes, the substrate also exhibited high SERS performance with the limit of detection (LOD) of crystal violet (CV) as low as 2.48 × 10−11 M. In particular, the AgNR/MXene substrate enabled on-site determination of 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77) and 4-chlorobiphenyl (PCB-3) and the LODs were low at 2.43 × 10−10 and 2.14 × 10−9 M, respectively. In addition, the AgNR/MXene substrate could be used for the detection of single-component and multi-component PCBs in real soil samples with good recovery percentages (90.3% and 91.6% for PCB-3 and PCB-77 in single-component format, 108.1% and 106.5% for PCB-3 and PCB-77 in multi-component format). The AgNR/MXene substrate combines the synergistic properties of both AgNRs and MXene, showing great potential in simultaneous SERS detection of multiple pollutants at the point of need.