Immunoassays for rapid mycotoxin detection: state of the art
The widespread presence of mycotoxins in nature not only poses a huge health risk to people in terms of food but also causes incalculable losses to the agricultural economy. As a rapidly developing technology in recent years, the mycotoxin immunoassay technology has approached or even surpassed the traditional chromatography technology in some aspects. Using this approach, the lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) has attracted the interest of researchers due to its user-friendly operation, short time consumption, little interference, low cost, and ability to process a large number of samples at the same time. This paper provides an overview of the immunogens commonly used for mycotoxins, the development of antibodies, and the use of gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanoparticles, enzymes, and fluorescent microsphere labeling materials for the construction of LFIAs to improve detection sensitivity. The analytical performance, detection substrates, detection limits or detection ranges of LFIA for mycotoxins have been listed in recent years. Finally, we describe the future outlook for the field, predicting that portable mobile detection devices and simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple mycotoxins is one of the important directions for future development.