Luminescent probes for hypochlorous acid in vitro and in vivo
HClO/ClO− is the most effective antibacterial active oxygen in neutrophils. However, its excessive existence often leads to the destruction of human physiological mechanisms. In recent years, the developed luminescent probes for the detection of HClO/ClO− are not only conducive to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of HClO/ClO− detection, but also play a crucial role in understanding the biological functions of HClO/ClO−. In addition, luminescent probe-based biological imaging for HClO/ClO− at sub-cellular resolution has become a powerful tool for biopathology and medical diagnostic research. This article reviews a variety of luminescent probes for the detection of HClO/ClO− in vitro and in vivo with different design principles and mechanisms, including fluorescence, phosphorescence, and chemiluminescence. The photophysical/chemical properties and biological applications of these luminescent probes were outlined. Finally, we summarized the merits and demerits of the developed luminescent probes and discussed their challenges and future development trends. It is hoped that this review can provide some inspiration for the development of luminescent probe-based strategies and to promote the further research of biomedical luminescent probes for HClO/ClO−.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Analytical Nanoscience