Laser-induced graphene hybrid photoelectrode for enhanced photoelectrochemical detection of glucose†
The combination of an electrocatalyst with a semiconductor light absorber is of great importance to increase the efficiency of photoelectrochemical (PEC) glucose detection. Here, in situ and synchronous fabrication of a Ni-based electrocatalyst (NiEC) and CdS semiconductor in laser-induced graphene (LIG) on indium–tin oxide glass is demonstrated via a one-step laser-induced solid phase transition. A series of component and structural characterization experiments suggest that the laser-induced NiEC uniformly disperses in the hybrid nanocomposite and exists mainly in the Ni0 and NiO states. Moreover, both electrochemical and PEC investigations confirm that the as-prepared hybrid photoelectrode exhibits excellent photoelectrocatalytic ability towards glucose, which is not only attributed to the strong synergistic interaction between CdS and NiEC, but also benefited from the high conductivity as well as 3D macroporous configuration of the simultaneously formed LIG, providing the key factor to achieve sensitive non-enzymatic PEC glucose sensors. Therefore, the laser-induced hybrid photoelectrode is then applied to the PEC detection of glucose, and a low detection limit of 0.4 μM is obtained with good stability, reproducibility, and selectivity. This study provides a promising paradigm for the facile and binder-free fabrication of an electrocatalyst–semiconductor–graphene hybrid photoelectrode, which will find potential applications in sensitive PEC biosensing for a broad range of analytes.