A paper-supported sandwich immunosensor based on upconversion luminescence resonance energy transfer for the visual and quantitative determination of a cancer biomarker in human serum†
In this paper, a paper-supported analytical device based on a sandwich immunoreaction and luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) was reported for the visual and quantitative determination of a cancer biomarker, in which upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) were located on the surface of the paper as energy donors and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used as energy acceptors. Upon the recognition of the cancer biomarker by two rationally selected antibodies, the upconversion luminescence was quenched by the AuNPs in a biomarker concentration-dependent manner. As a model target, CEA was detected using this immunosensor, and a linear relationship within 0.5–30 ng mL−1 was obtained in buffer solution, with a detection limit of 0.21 ng mL−1. The immunosensor was also applicable in 20-fold diluted human serum with a linear range of 0.5–30 ng mL−1 and a detection limit of 0.36 ng mL−1. This technique also realized the qualitative judgment of the critical concentration of CEA in serum samples by the naked eye. This approach displays great application potential for point-of-care testing in clinical applications, as well as the potentiality to be extended to other kinds of disease-related biomolecules.