Optical biosensors: an exhaustive and comprehensive review
Optical biosensors have exhibited worthwhile performance in detecting biological systems and promoting significant advances in clinical diagnostics, drug discovery, food process control, and environmental monitoring. Without complexity in their pretreatment and probable influence on the nature of target molecules, these biosensors have additional advantages such as high sensitivity, robustness, reliability, and potential to be integrated on a single chip. In this review, the state of the art optical biosensor technologies, including those based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR), optical waveguides, optical resonators, photonic crystals, and optical fibers, are presented. The principles for each type of biosensor are concisely introduced and particular emphasis has been placed on recent achievements. The strengths and weaknesses of each type of biosensor have been outlined as well. Concluding remarks regarding the perspectives of future developments are discussed.