Oxidization increases the binding of EGCG to serum albumin revealed by kinetic data from label-free optical biosensor with reference channel†
Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) is the main polyphenol ingredient of green tea. This compound is a strong antioxidant and oxidizes easily. Numerous studies demonstrated its beneficial effects on the human health, for example its anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. In the body, EGCG is transported by serum albumin. EGCG easily oxidizes and the interactions of the oxidized form presumably present significant differences. However, the presence of oxidized EGCG is usually neglected in the literature and its effects have not been investigated in detail. Here, we applied the label-free grating coupled interferometry method that performs dual-channel measurements. The measured kinetic signal can be compensated with a signal of a reference channel at each measurement time. By testing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic platforms, we found that EGCG can bind to a wide range of surfaces. Exploiting the dual-channel referencing ability as well as the unique sensitivity and throughput of the employed label-free technique, the experiments revealed the specific interactions between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and EGCG and determined the characteristic dissociation constant (Kd) of the binding equilibrium. The obtained binding constants were compared to literature values, showing reasonable agreement with NMR data. Besides the native EGCG, the oxidized form of EGCG was also examined, whose binding behaviors to serum albumins have never been studied. Overstoichiometric binding obtained; BSA has stronger and weaker binding sites, which could be characterized by two separate Kd values. Furthermore, EGCG oxidization increased the bound amount.