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Issue 23, 2020
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Enhancing P3HT/PCBM blend stability by thermal crosslinking using poly(3-hexylthiophene)-S,S-dioxide

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Abstract

A statistical copolymer containing thiophene and thiophene dioxide, namely poly[(3-hexylthiophene)-co-(3-hexylthiophene-S,S-dioxide)] (P3HT-TDO), was utilized as a thermal crosslinker in a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric methyl ester (PCBM), demonstrating an effective strategy for preventing agglomeration of PCBM and enhancing blend stability. P3HT-TDO was synthesized by microwave-assisted oxidation of P3HT and its characterization was carried out using UV-Vis spectroscopy, 1H-NMR, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Crosslinking of P3HT-TDO was achieved via Diels–Alder reaction at ∼150 °C. Thermogravimetric analysis, combined with FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry, were used to study the crosslinking process. In order to test the impact of thermal cross-linking, field effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated using pristine and compared to cross-linked P3HT. It was found that P3HT-TDO crosslinking did not suppress charge mobility. The stability of the P3HT/P3HT-TDO/PCBM blend was characterized in the solid-state from spin-coated thin films. The samples were analysed using UV-vis spectroscopy and Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) to monitor the effects of thermal processing. The results revealed that presence of P3HT-TDO in the blend minimizes crystallization of PCBM during annealing and preserves the ordered microcrystalline segments from P3HT. Optical microscopy analysis of P3HT/P3HT-TDO/PCBM thin films also confirmed the effectiveness of the strategy and inhibition of PCBM crystal formation even after 155 hours of annealing.

Graphical abstract: Enhancing P3HT/PCBM blend stability by thermal crosslinking using poly(3-hexylthiophene)-S,S-dioxide

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
08 Jan 2020
Accepted
21 Apr 2020
First published
24 Apr 2020

J. Mater. Chem. C, 2020,8, 7698-7707
Article type
Paper

Enhancing P3HT/PCBM blend stability by thermal crosslinking using poly(3-hexylthiophene)-S,S-dioxide

M. Milanovich, T. Sarkar, Y. Popowski, J. Z. Low, L. M. Campos, S. Kenig, G. L. Frey and E. Amir, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2020, 8, 7698
DOI: 10.1039/D0TC00109K

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