Amino acid modified gadofullerene protects against insulin resistance induced by oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes†
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to be involved in the development of insulin resistance; thus, antioxidant therapy is a promising strategy in the treatment of insulin resistance related diseases. In this study, we synthesized a high-efficiency ROS scavenger, an amino acid derivative of Gd@C82 (GF-Ala), and evaluated its effects on ROS-mediated insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The exposure of adipocytes to H2O2 (generated by glucose oxidase) resulted in an elevated level of ROS, a reduced content of GSH and an increase in JNK activation, concomitantly with a decrease in insulin-stimulated PI3K, Akt and p70S6K activation and cellular glucose uptake. The pre-treatment of cells with GF-Ala suppressed H2O2-induced abnormalities in the cellular redox state and insulin signalling pathway and attenuated insulin resistance in a dose-dependent manner. Altogether, gadofullerene has potential therapeutic prospects in the prevention and treatment of insulin resistance related diseases.