Platinum-loaded, selenium-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles selectively reduce proliferation of prostate and breast cancer cells co-cultured in the presence of stem cells†
Chemotherapeutic treatment of patients with bone tumors or bone metastases often leads to severe side effects such as high drug toxicity, lack of tumor specificity and induced drug resistance. A novel strategy to treat early stages of bone metastases involves local co-delivery of multiple chemotherapeutic agents to synergistically improve the curative effect and overcome shortcomings of traditional chemotherapy. Herein we show that selenite-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles loaded with a hydroxyapatite-binding anti-tumor platinum complex (PtPP–HASe) selectively reduce proliferation of cancer cells without reducing proliferation of bone marrow stem cells. These PtPP–HASe particles were nanocrystalline with selenium (Se) and platinum (Pt) contents ranging between 0–10 and 1.5–3 wt%, respectively. Release kinetics of Se and Pt from PtPP–HASe nanoparticles resulted in a cumulative release of ∼10 and ∼66 wt% after 7 days, respectively. At a Pt/Se ratio of 8, released Pt and Se species selectively reduced cell number of human prostate (PC3) and human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) by a factor of >10 with limited effects on co-cultured human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSc). These novel nanoparticles demonstrate high anti-cancer selectivity, which offers ample opportunities for the design of novel biomaterials with potent and selective chemotherapeutic efficacy against cancer cells.