A stretchable solid-state zinc ion battery based on a cellulose nanofiber–polyacrylamide hydrogel electrolyte and a Mg0.23V2O5·1.0H2O cathode†
In comparison with well-protected rigid batteries with liquid electrolytes, solid-state batteries (ssBs) are more beneficial, offering high flexibility, high wearability and leakage prevention. Currently, ssBs with the capability of bending and twisting have been extensively studied. However, it remains a challenge to develop a highly stretchable ssB with the maintenance of high performance. Herein, we report a stable solid-state zinc ion battery (ssZIB) based on a cellulose nanofiber (CNF)–polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel electrolyte and a Mg0.23V2O5·1.0H2O cathode. The designed CNF–PAM hydrogel shows high stretchability and robust mechanical stability. Moreover, the porous CNF–PAM hydrogel electrolyte provides efficient pathways for the transportation of zinc ions. And the robust layered structure of V2O5·1.0H2O pillared with Mg2+ ions and water supports the fast insertion/extraction of zinc ions in the lattice. Therefore, the designed ssZIB shows unprecedented high capacity at high current with durable cycling life. At a current density of 5 A g−1 (charging time of around 3 minutes), the ssZIBs can deliver a high reversible capacity of 216 mA h g−1 after 2000 cycles and retain 98.6% of the initial capacity, showing a high capacity and long-life durability at high currents. Furthermore, the designed spring ssZIBs can work under stretching with the strain reaching 650%. And the designed ssZIBs are still operational even under repeated bending, freezing, and heating conditions. The ssZIBs show robust mechanical stability, high stretchability and impressive electrochemical performance, providing a potential pathway to expand the application of ZIBs to a broad range of practical energy storage devices.