Nanofilament array embedded tungsten oxide for highly efficient electrochromic supercapacitor electrodes†
The high-activity of metallic nanofilament array (NFA) embedded tungsten oxide (WO3) bifunctional electrodes for electrochromism and electrochemical energy storage is presented. The NFA reduces charge transfer resistance and increases the electrochemically active surface area at the electrode–electrolyte interface. The NFA-embedded WO3 electrode exhibits a specific capacity of 214 F g−1 (pristine WO3: 133 F g−1) at 0.25 mA cm−2, excellent cycling stability with ∼92% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles (pristine WO3: ∼75% capacitance retention) and a coloration efficiency of 128 cm2 C−1 (pristine WO3: 91 cm2 C−1) with superb optical modulation. These properties are significantly more advanced compared to the pristine WO3 electrode and superior to previously reported WO3-based composites and nanostructured materials.