The natural critical current density limit for Li7La3Zr2O12 garnets†
Ceramic batteries equipped with Li-metal anodes are expected to double the energy density of conventional Li-ion batteries. Besides high energy densities, also high power is needed when batteries have to be developed for electric vehicles. Practically speaking, so-called critical current densities (CCD) higher than 3 mA cm−2 are needed to realize such systems. As yet, this value has, however, not been achieved for garnet-type Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) being one of the most promising ceramic electrolytes. Most likely, CCD values are influenced by the area specific resistance (ASR) governing ionic transport across the Li|electrolyte interface. Here, single crystals of LLZO with adjusted ASR are used to quantify this relationship in a systematic manner. It turned out that CCD values exponentially decrease with increasing ASR. The highest obtained CCD value was as high as 280 μA cm−2. This value should be regarded as the room-temperature limit for LLZO when no external pressure is applied. Concluding, for polycrystalline samples either stack pressure or a significant increase of the interfacial area is needed to reach current densities equal or higher than the above-mentioned target value.
- This article is part of the themed collections: Recent Open Access Articles and Journal of Materials Chemistry A Emerging Investigators