Recent progress on metallic Sn- and Sb-based anodes for sodium-ion batteries
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have demonstrated greater potential for application in large-scale energy storage devices than lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to the natural abundance, low cost and environmental benignity of sodium resources. However, the low energy density and poor cycling life limit their commercial applications. The development of high-performance anode materials is one of the key issues for SIBs. Compared with carbonaceous materials, metallic Sn-, Sb- and SnSb alloy-based anodes have developed rapidly due to their high theoretical capacity, high electrical conductivity and safe reaction potential. The major challenge for them is the large volume change during the sodiation/desodiation process, resulting in rapid capacity decay. Numerous efforts have been devoted to solving this problem. This review summarizes recent progress on this cutting-edge topic. A range of Sn-, Sb- and SnSb-based anode materials have been introduced with respect to size control and nanostructure design. It is found that the use of ultra-small nanoparticles, elaborate interface design, heterogeneous element (N, S etc.) doping, multi-dimensional integration etc. are efficient strategies to enhance the electrochemical performance of these anode materials. The ingenious nanostructures and their synthesis methods reported in this review may provide new insights to the rational design of novel anode materials for practical application in advanced energy storage devices in the near future.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Journal of Materials Chemistry A Recent Review Articles