Experimental study of the Poynting effect in a soft unidirectional fiber-reinforced material under simple shear
The aim of this work was to investigate the shear and lateral normal responses of a soft unidirectional fiber-reinforced material subjected to simple shear. The Poynting effect was also investigated. Soft composites were manufactured from a flexible adhesive reinforced by a single family of parallel and continuous fibers of nylon. Specimens with fibers oriented at an angle (−45°, 0°, 45° and 90°) with respect to the applied shear force were tested. A simple shear test apparatus was developed to measure shear and normal forces simultaneously. A standard reinforcing model based on strain-energy density function was used to verify the mechanical behavior of the soft composite with different fiber orientation. Results showed that the initial stiffness of the composite with fibers oriented at −45° and 45° was approximately the same and was higher than those at 0° and 90°. Also, there was no significant difference between values of initial stiffness for angles of 0° and 90° and the neat matrix. The effect of the stretching resistance of the fibers was more pronounced for fibers oriented at 45° and 90°. There was no Poynting effect for the neat matrix or for the composite with fibers at 0° while positive and negative Poynting effects were observed for fibers oriented at −45° and 45° (and 90°), respectively. The standard reinforcing model was only verified for a limited range of amount of shear due to composite failure. Fiber debonding and fiber buckling were observed in the composites with fibers oriented at 45° (and 90°) and −45°, respectively, at large deformations.