Active Brownian particles: mapping to equilibrium polymers and exact computation of moments
It is well known that the path probabilities of Brownian motion correspond to the equilibrium configurational probabilities of flexible Gaussian polymers, while those of active Brownian motion correspond to in-extensible semiflexible polymers. Here we investigate the properties of the equilibrium polymer that corresponds to the trajectories of particles acted on simultaneously by both Brownian and active noise. Through this mapping we can see interesting crossovers in the mechanical properties of the polymer with changing contour length. The polymer end-to-end distribution exhibits Gaussian behaviour for short lengths, which changes to the form of semiflexible filaments at intermediate lengths, to finally go back to a Gaussian form for long contour lengths. By performing a Laplace transform of the governing Fokker–Planck equation of the active Brownian particle, we discuss a direct method to derive exact expressions for all the moments of the relevant dynamical variables, in arbitrary dimensions. These are verified via numerical simulations and used to describe interesting qualitative features such as, for example, dynamical crossovers. Finally we discuss the kurtosis of the ABP's position, which we compute exactly, and show that it can be used to differentiate between active Brownian particles and the active Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process.