Selective single-atom electrocatalysts: a review with a focus on metal-doped covalent triazine frameworks
Single-atom electrocatalysts (SACs), which comprise singly isolated metal sites supported on heterogeneous substrates, have attracted considerable recent attention as next-generation electrocatalysts for various key reactions from the viewpoint of the environment and energy. Not only electrocatalytic activity but also selectivity can be precisely tuned via the construction of SACs with a defined coordination structure, such as homogeneous organometallics. Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are promising supports for single-atom sites with designed coordination environments due to their unique physicochemical properties, which include porous structures, robustness, a wide range of possible designs, and abundant heteroatoms to coordinate single-metal sites. The rigid frameworks of COFs can hold unstable single-metal atoms, such as coordinatively unsaturated sites or easily aggregated Pt-group metals, which exhibit unique electrocatalytic selectivity. This minireview summarizes recent advances in the selective reactions catalysed by SACs, mainly those supported on triazine-based COFs.