Photon echoes and two dimensional spectra of the amide I band of proteins measured by femtosecond IR – Raman spectroscopy†
Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy are fundamental techniques in chemistry, allowing the convenient determination of bond specific chemical composition and structure. Over the last decades, ultrafast multidimensional IR approaches using sequences of femtosecond IR pulses have begun to provide a new means of gaining additional information on molecular vibrational couplings, distributions of molecular structures and ultrafast molecular structural dynamics. In this contribution, new approaches to measuring multidimensional spectra involving IR and Raman processes are presented and applied to the study of the amide I band of proteins. Rephasing of the amide I band is observed using dispersed IR-Raman photon echoes and frequency domain 2D-IR-Raman spectra are measured by use of a mid-IR pulse shaper or over a broader spectral range using a tuneable picosecond laser. A simple pulse shaping approach to performing heterodyned time-domain Fourier Transform 2D-IR-Raman spectroscopy is introduced, revealing that the 2D-IR-Raman spectra distinguish homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening in the same way as the well-established methods of 2D-IR spectroscopy. Across all datasets, the unique dependence of the amide I data on the IR and Raman strengths, vibrational anharmonicities and inhomogeneous broadening provides a fascinating spectroscopic view of the amide I band.