Development of tethered dual catalysts: synergy between photo- and transition metal catalysts for enhanced catalysis†
While dual photocatalysis–transition metal catalysis strategies are extensively reported, the majority of systems feature two separate catalysts, limiting the potential for synergistic interactions between the catalytic centres. In this work we synthesised a series of tethered dual catalysts allowing us to investigate this underexplored area of dual catalysis. In particular, Ir(I) or Ir(III) complexes were tethered to a BODIPY photocatalyst through different tethering modes. Extensive characterisation, including transient absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, suggest that there are synergistic interactions between the catalysts. The tethered dual catalysts were more effective at promoting photocatalytic oxidation and Ir-catalysed dihydroalkoxylation, relative to the un-tethered species, highlighting that increases in both photocatalysis and Ir catalysis can be achieved. The potential of these catalysts was further demonstrated through novel sequential reactivity, and through switchable reactivity that is controlled by external stimuli (heat or light).
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