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Issue 46, 2020, Issue in Progress
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Sensible graphene oxide differentiates macrophages and Leishmania: a bio-nano interplay in attenuating intracellular parasite

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Abstract

Leishmania is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, which resides in human macrophage vacuoles that are referred to as parasitophorus vacuoles. Amphotericin B (AmB) is the first-line drug with 99% cure rates; however, overdose-induced toxic side effects are a major limitation. To improve the efficacy at lower dose and subsequently to avoid toxicity and to further investigate the role of charge dynamics on the efficacy, a graphene oxide (GO)-based composite of AmB was developed with native negatively charged GO and amine-conjugated positively charged AGO. The AGO composite resulted in enhanced uptake as confirmed by confocal and FACS analysis. Thus, AGO caused a strong inhibition of amastigotes, with IC50 values 5-fold lower than free AmB. The parasitophorus vacuoles harbour a hydrolytic and acidic environment, which is favourable for the parasites, as they don't attenuate this condition. AGO–AmB was able to modify the intracellular pH of the Leishmania donovani-infected macrophages, generating unfavourable conditions for the amastigote, and thus improving its efficacy.

Graphical abstract: Sensible graphene oxide differentiates macrophages and Leishmania: a bio-nano interplay in attenuating intracellular parasite

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
13 May 2020
Accepted
23 Jun 2020
First published
22 Jul 2020

This article is Open Access

RSC Adv., 2020,10, 27502-27511
Article type
Paper

Sensible graphene oxide differentiates macrophages and Leishmania: a bio-nano interplay in attenuating intracellular parasite

A. Singh, S. Sharma, G. Yadagiri, S. Parvez, R. Gupta, N. K. Singhal, N. Koratkar, O. P. Singh, S. Sundar, V. Shanmugam and S. L. Mudavath, RSC Adv., 2020, 10, 27502
DOI: 10.1039/D0RA04266H

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