Identification and bioactivity evaluation of secondary metabolites from Antarctic-derived Penicillium chrysogenum CCTCC M 2020019†
Extracts from Antarctic-derived Penicillium chrysogenum CCTCC M 2020019 showed potent antibacterial bioactivities. We report herein the isolation of chrysonin (1), a new compound containing a pair of enantiomers 6S- and 6R-chrysonin (1a and 1b) featuring an unprecedented eight-membered heterocycle fused with a benzene ring. Compound 2, a mixture consisting of a new zwitterionic compound chrysomamide (2a) and N-[2-trans-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethenyl] formamide (2b) in a ratio around 1 : 2.8, was isolated together with seven known compounds 3–9. Chemical structures of all compounds were determined by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. The isolated compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial, cytotoxic and alpha-glucosidase inhibition activities. Chrysonin (1) showed moderate alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The dominant product xanthocillin X (4) displayed potent inhibition activities against Gram-negative pathogens Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC values at 0.125 μg mL−1. Xanthocillins X (4) and Y1 (5) also showed significant cytotoxicities against four cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.26 to 5.04 μM. This study highlights that microorganisms from polar regions are emerging as a new resource for the discovery of natural products combating human pathogens.