MXene and MXene-based composites: synthesis, properties and environment-related applications
In recent years, a new large family of two dimensional transition metal carbides, carbonitrides, and nitrides, so-called MXenes, have grabbed considerable attention, owing to their many fascinating physical and chemical properties that are closely related to the rich diversity of their elemental compositions and surface terminations. In particular, it is easy for MXenes to form composites with other materials such as polymers, oxides, and carbon nanotubes, which further provides an effective way to tune the properties of MXenes for various applications. Not only have MXenes and MXene-based composites come into prominence as electrode materials in the energy storage field as is widely known, but they have also shown great potential in environment-related applications including electro/photocatalytic water splitting, photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide, water purification and sensors, thanks to their high conductivity, reducibility and biocompatibility. In this review, we summarize the synthesis and properties of MXenes and MXene-based composites and highlight their recent advances in environment-related applications. Challenges and perspectives for future research are also outlined.