A proteome-integrated, carbon source dependent genetic regulatory network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae†
Integrated regulatory networks can be powerful tools to examine and test properties of cellular systems, such as modelling environmental effects on the molecular bioeconomy, where protein levels are altered in response to changes in growth conditions. Although extensive regulatory pathways and protein interaction data sets exist which represent such networks, few have formally considered quantitative proteomics data to validate and extend them. We generate and consider such data here using a label-free proteomics strategy to quantify alterations in protein abundance for S. cerevisiae when grown on minimal media using glucose, galactose, maltose and trehalose as sole carbon sources. Using a high quality-controlled subset of proteins observed to be differentially abundant, we constructed a proteome-informed network, comprising 1850 transcription factor interactions and 37 chaperone interactions, which defines the major changes in the cellular proteome when growing under different carbon sources. Analysis of the differentially abundant proteins involved in the regulatory network pointed to their significant roles in specific metabolic pathways and function, including glucose homeostasis, amino acid biosynthesis, and carbohydrate metabolic process. We noted strong statistical enrichment in the differentially abundant proteome of targets of known transcription factors associated with stress responses and altered carbon metabolism. This shows how such integrated analysis can lend further experimental support to annotated regulatory interactions, since the proteomic changes capture both magnitude and direction of gene expression change at the level of the affected proteins. Overall this study highlights the power of quantitative proteomics to help define regulatory systems pertinent to environmental conditions.