Supported heterogeneous nanocatalysts in sustainable, selective and eco-friendly epoxidation of olefins
Epoxides are highly useful intermediates in the production of many chemicals, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, and polymers. In view of the continuing demand for epoxides, it is imperative to develop greener and sustainable reaction protocols. To address these challenges, highly active, selective and efficient heterogeneous catalysts have been designed. Historically, there has been a progressive replacement of hazardous peracids and chlorohydrin-based epoxidation of olefins by metal catalysts deploying tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and molecular oxygen (O2) as oxidants. The main focus of this review is to epitomize the wide scope of supported metal nanocatalysts that have been applied for the epoxidation of olefins. The synthesis, activity and selectivity of the nanocatalytic materials along with a critical appraisal of the performance of the support in the epoxidation of olefins are accentuated.