Alkaline-earth complexes with macrocyclic-functionalised bis(phenolate)s and bis(fluoroalkoxide)s†
The synthesis and structural features of several families of unsolvated molecular complexes of the heavy alkaline earths (Ae = calcium, strontium and barium) supported by bis(phenolate)s or bis(fluoroalkoxide)s are described. These dianionic, multidentate ligands are built around diaza-macrocycles that contain either five or six N- and O-heteroatoms. Several of these complexes have been characterised by X-ray diffraction crystallography. A list of comparative features was drawn upon close examination of the molecular structures of these complexes. It highlights the subtle influences of the identity of the central Ae metal, denticity and nature -fluoroalkoxide vs. phenolate- of the anionic tethers in the ligands. All complexes are seven- or eight-coordinate. It is observed in particular that a decrease of the number of heteroatoms in the macrocyclic backbone of the ligand will be compensated by the establishment of intramolecular Ae⋯F interactions (accounting for ca. 3.8–6.4% of the pertaining coordination spheres according to bond valence sum analysis), dimerisation of the complex, or, in one case, solvent (thf) retention. Attempts to gauge the Lewis acidity in these series of complexes were carried out by three independent methods (Childs, Gutmann–Beckett and global electrophilicity index). However, conflicting results were obtained and no clear trend can be delineated, even if on the whole, these measurements concur to suggest relatively low Lewis acidity.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Spotlight Collection: Fluorinated ligands