Rare-earth-containing perovskite nanomaterials: design, synthesis, properties and applications
As star material, perovskites have been widely used in the fields of optics, photovoltaics, electronics, magnetics, catalysis, sensing, etc. However, some inherent shortcomings, such as low efficiency (power conversion efficiency, external quantum efficiency, etc.) and poor stability (against water, oxygen, ultraviolet light, etc.), limit their practical applications. Downsizing the materials into nanostructures and incorporating rare earth (RE) ions are effective means to improve their properties and broaden their applications. This review will systematically summarize the key points in the design, synthesis, property improvements and application expansion of RE-containing (including both RE-based and RE-doped) halide and oxide perovskite nanomaterials (PNMs). The critical factors of incorporating RE elements into different perovskite structures and the rational design of functional materials will be discussed in detail. The advantages and disadvantages of different synthesis methods for PNMs will be reviewed. This paper will also summarize some practical experiences in selecting suitable RE elements and designing multi-functional materials according to the mechanisms and principles of REs promoting the properties of perovskites. At the end of this review, we will provide an outlook on the opportunities and challenges of RE-containing PNMs in various fields.