Guidelines and trends for next-generation rechargeable lithium and lithium-ion batteries†
Commercial lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries suffer from low energy density and do not meet the growing demands of the energy storage market. Therefore, building next-generation rechargeable Li and Li-ion batteries with higher energy densities, better safety characteristics, lower cost and longer cycle life is of outmost importance. To achieve smaller and lighter next-generation rechargeable Li and Li-ion batteries that can outperform commercial Li-ion batteries, several new energy storage chemistries are being extensively studied. In this review, we summarize the current trends and provide guidelines towards achieving this goal, by addressing batteries using high-voltage cathodes, metal fluoride electrodes, chalcogen electrodes, Li metal anodes, high-capacity anodes as well as useful electrolyte solutions. We discuss the choice of active materials, practically achievable energy densities and challenges faced by the respective battery systems. Furthermore, strategies to overcome remaining challenges for achieving energy characteristics are addressed in the hope of providing a useful and balanced assessment of current status and perspectives of rechargeable Li and Li-ion batteries.