Impact of improvements in mesoporous titania layers on ultrafast electron transfer dynamics in perovskite and dye-sensitized solar cells†
Improvement in the performance of perovskite solar cells (PSC) and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) upon modifications of mesoporous titania layers has been studied. For PSC with triple cation perovskite (FA0.76 MA0.19 Cs0.05 Pb (I0.81 Br0.19)3) about 40% higher photocurrent (up to ∼24 mA cm−2) was found for more homogenous, made of larger particles (30 nm) and thinner (150–200 nm) titania layer. For DSSC (both with liquid cobalt-based electrolyte as well as with solid state hole transporter – spiro-OMeTAD), a greater dye loading, rise in photovoltage, and the enhancement in relative photocurrent were observed for the cells prepared from the diluted titania paste (2 : 1 w/w ratio) with respect to those prepared from undiluted one. The impact of these improvements in titania layers on charge transfer dynamics in the complete solar cells as well as in pristine TiO2 layers was investigated by femtosecond transient absorption. Shorter photocarriers lifetime in perovskite material observed in better PSC, indicated that faster electron transfer at the titania interface was responsible for the higher photocurrent. Moreover, the photoinduced changes close to TiO2 interface were revealed in better PSC, which may indicate that in the efficient devices halide segregation takes place in perovskite material. In liquid DSSC, the fast component of unwanted recombination was slower in the samples with the diluted titania paste than in those made with undiluted ones. In solid state DSSC, hole injection from MK2 dye to spiro-OMeTAD takes place on the very fast ps time scale (comparable to that of electron injection) and the evidence of better penetration of spiro-OMeTAD into thinner and more porous titania layers was provided.