Hemostatic nanotechnologies for external and internal hemorrhage management
An uncontrolled hemorrhage can easily lead to death during surgery and military operations. Despite the significant advances in hemostatic research, there is still an urgent and increasing need for safer and more effective hemostatic materials. Recently, nanotechnologies have been receiving increasing interest owing to their unique advantages and have been propelling the developement of hemostatic materials. This review summarizes the fundamentals of hemostasis and emphasizes the recent developments regarding hemorrhage-related hemostatic nanotechnologies. In terms of external accessible hemorrhage management, natural and synthetic polymers and inorganic components that have been used in traditional hemostats provide novel nanoscale solutions. Regarding internal noncompressible hemorrhage management, current research endeavors are dedicated to the development of substitutes for blood components, and nanoformulated hemostatic drugs. This review also briefly discusses the main and persistent problems of hemostatic nanomaterials, including safety concerns and clinical translation challenges. This review is hoped to provide critical insight into hemostatic nanomaterial development.