Portable and field-deployed surface plasmon resonance and plasmonic sensors
Plasmonic sensors are ideally suited for the design of small, integrated, and portable devices that can be employed in situ for the detection of analytes relevant to environmental sciences, clinical diagnostics, infectious diseases, food, and industrial applications. To successfully deploy plasmonic sensors, scaled-down analytical devices based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) must integrate optics, plasmonic materials, surface chemistry, fluidics, detectors and data processing in a functional instrument with a small footprint. The field has significantly progressed from the implementation of the various components in specifically designed prism-based instruments to the use of nanomaterials, optical fibers and smartphones to yield increasingly portable devices, which have been shown for a number of applications in the laboratory and deployed on site for environmental, biomedical/clinical, and food applications. A roadmap to deploy plasmonic sensors is provided by reviewing the current successes and by laying out the directions the field is currently taking to increase the use of field-deployed plasmonic sensors at the point-of-care, in the environment and in industries.