Evaluation for regional difference of skin-gas ethanol and sweat rate using alcohol dehydrogenase-mediated fluorometric gas-imaging system (sniff-cam)†
Skin gas that contains volatile metabolites (volatilome) is emanated continuously and is thus expected to be suitable for non-invasive monitoring. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the regional difference of sweat rate and skin volatilome distribution to identify the suitable site to monitor metabolisms. In this study, we developed a biofluorometric gas-imaging system (sniff-cam) based on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) to visualize transcutaneous ethanol (EtOH) distribution. The EtOH distribution was converted to a fluorescence distribution of reduced NAD with autofluorescence property. First, we optimized the solution volume and concentration of the oxidized NAD, which was a coenzyme of ADH. Owing to the optimization, a two-dimensional distribution of EtOH could be visualized from 0.05–10 ppm with good sensitivity and selectivity. Subsequently, transcutaneous EtOH imaging and measurement of sweat rate were performed at the palm, dorsum of hand, and wrist of participants who consumed alcohol. Transcutaneous EtOH from all skin parts was imaged using the sniff-cam; the concentrations initially increased until 30 min after drinking, followed by a gradual decrease. Although the determined peak EtOH concentrations of typical subjects were approximately 1100 ± 35 ppb (palm), which were higher than 720 ± 18 ppb (dorsum) and 620 ± 13 ppb (wrist), the results of sweat rate suggested that the dorsum of hand and the wrist were appropriate sites. Finally, the sniff-cam could visualize the individual difference of alcohol metabolism capacity originating from aldehyde dehydrogenase phenotype by imaging transcutaneous EtOH.