Swelling-induced 3D photopatterning on a diselenide-containing elastomer
An ordered pattern or a distinct texture on surfaces endows materials with specific applications, such as oil–water separation, advanced anticounterfeiting and optical devices. Conventional photolithography and surface patterning methods can form only 2D patterns, and they are also limited by the shape of a material and the required equipment. In this study, a swelling-induced 3D photopatterning (SPP) method is demonstrated to manipulate both the shape and surface pattern of a material. Under the irradiation of visible light, metathesis of diselenide bonds induces different swelling behaviors between irradiated and nonirradiated regions. Based on the differences, various programmable 3D patterns are obtained. Notably, the SPP method is not limited by the size and shape of the material; therefore, this method can be applied to thin film materials, bulk materials and cylindrical materials. In addition, this strategy has potential applications in advanced anticounterfeiting.