Critical and diverse roles of phosphates in human bone formation
Humans utilise biomineralisation in the formation of bone and teeth. Human biomineralisation processes are defined by the transformation of an amorphous phosphate-based precursor to highly organised nanocrystals. Interestingly, ionic phosphate species not only provide a fundamental building block of biological mineral, but rather exhibit several diverse roles in mediating mineral formation in the physiological milieu. In this review, we focus on elucidating the complex roles of phosphate ions and molecules within human biomineralisation pathways, primarily referring to the nucleation and crystallisation of bone mineral.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Review Articles