Topographical patterning: characteristics of current processing techniques, controllable effects on material properties and co-cultured cell fate, updated applications in tissue engineering, and improvement strategies
Topographical patterning has recently attracted lots of attention in regulating cell fate, understanding the mechanism of cell–microenvironment interactions, and solving the great issues of regenerative medicine. The introduced patterns offer topographical cues that can affect the reconstruction of the cytoskeleton or stimulate cell membrane receptors. Numerous studies have focused on these effects on cell behavior including attachment, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. In this review, five aspects of topographical patterning are discussed: (1) the process of typical micro-/nanotechniques and their advantages and limitations; (2) the effects of patterning on the mechanical properties and surface properties of substrates; (3) the influences of micro-/nanopatterns on the behavior of mesenchymal stem cells, as well as the underlying mechanisms; (4) the application of patterns to solve the issues of targeted organs (e.g., skin, nerves, blood vessels, bones, and heart). In the end, future perspectives that would help promote the efficiency of topographical patterning are proposed.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Review Articles