Inflammation-responsive functional Ru nanoparticles combining a tumor-associated macrophage repolarization strategy with phototherapy for colorectal cancer therapy†
Due to the complexity and heterogeneity of solid tumors, traditional clinical treatments often only achieve limited therapeutic effects. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a key role in the development of solid tumors, and the elimination of solid tumors based on the tumor microenvironment has proven to be an effective therapeutic strategy. Here, we successfully developed Ru-based nanoparticles, Ru@ICG–BLZ NPs, with inflammation-responsive release ability, which could repolarize TAMs into M1 macrophages (with an antitumor role) and further produce hyperthermia and ROS to eliminate cancer cells. In vitro experiments showed that Ru@ICG–BLZ NPs had superior drug (ICG and BLZ-945) loading capacity and sensitive inflammation-responsive drug release behavior, which enhanced CT26 cell uptake and penetration ability. Furthermore, in vivo experiments showed that Ru@ICG–BLZ NPs could effectively up-regulate the expression of M1 markers (iNOS, and IL-12) and exert phototherapy to ablate solid tumor, without causing obvious damage to the surrounding tissues of the tumor. The lower toxicity and excellent antitumor ability of Ru@ICG–BLZ NPs could provide new ideas for the clinical transformation of nanomedicine.