A tannic acid-modified fluoride pre-treated Mg–Zn–Y–Nd alloy with antioxidant and platelet-repellent functionalities for vascular stent application
Vascular stent interventional therapy, as a regular and effective therapy, has been widely used to treat coronary artery diseases. However, adverse events occur frequently after stent intervention, especially restenosis and late stent thrombosis. The targeted implanting site will suffer from severe atherosclerosis, which is considered as a chronic inflammatory disease. Meanwhile, with the over-expanding use of endovascular mechanical intervention, vascular injury has become an increasingly common issue. Lesions and newly induced vascular injury result in inflammatory and oxidative stress; meanwhile, activated macrophages and granulocytes generate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributing to endothelial dysfunction and neointima hyperplasia. Therefore, attenuating oxidative stress and reducing ROS generation in the inflammatory response represent reasonable strategies to inhibit intimal hyperplasia and restenosis. Herein, we have developed a multifunctional surface for the MgZnYNd alloy with tannic acid (TA) coating, and the pH dependence of the coating deposition is also demonstrated. The phenolic hydroxyl groups on the coatings endow the modified surface with excellent antioxidant functions. We found that the coating can be recycled, and the scavenging activity hardly weakened within five cycles. Also, the TA coating has a promising strong antioxidant activity as it shows a radical scavenging activity over 80% in long term. Moreover, the TA coating possesses platelet-repellent capability. No significant inflammatory response was observed for the TA modified sample in the rat subcutaneous implantation test. Combining these performances, we envision that the vascular stent modified with TA coating can have great potential in various applications by virtue of its simplicity and effectiveness.