Multifunctional Fibrous Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration with Enhanced Vascularization
Due to the structural similarity to the extracellular matrix of human tissue and the ultra-high surface area-to-volume ratio, three dimensional electrospun fibrous structures have been increasingly used as tissue engineering scaffolds. Given that the successful bone regeneration requires both good osteogenesis and vascularization, producing scaffolds which are both osteogenic and angiogenic potent is highly desirable. In this investigation, tricomponent fibrous scaffolds simultaneously incorporated with recombinant human vein endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF), recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and bioactive calcium phosphate (Ca-P) nanoparticles are produced through novel multi-source multi-power electrospinning, and sequential growth factor release with a quick rhVEGF release and a steady rhBMP-2 release is achieved. The enhanced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) migration and up-regulated human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) osteogenic differentiation and mineralization demonstrate that tricomponent scaffolds have balanced angiogenic-osteogenic properties in vitro. 8-week after the scaffold implantation into the cranial defects of mice, obvious new bone regeneration and newly formed capillaries are observed in tricomponent scaffolds, suggesting that tricomponent scaffolds enhance the osteogenesis in vivo with required vascularization, which shows great potential of the tricomponent scaffolds in bone tissue regeneration.