Cytocompatible cerium oxide-mediated antioxidative stress in inhibiting ocular inflammation-associated corneal neovascularization†
As oxidative stress is involved with inflammation and neovascularization, blocking oxidative stress may be beneficial for reducing inflammation. To investigate the potential use of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) in treating neovascularization-related ophthalmic diseases, various CeNP samples were synthesized, and the sample with the best antioxidant efficacy was used in a rat model of inflammation-associated corneal neovascularization. This synthesized cerium oxide showed good biocompatibility and was capable of mediating a decrease in the expression levels of inflammatory factors via antioxidative stress. Additionally, in vitro tests showed that the Ce3+/Ce4+ ratio of the CeNPs directly affected the antioxidative activity, with higher ratios achieving better efficacy. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of the functional CeNPs was examined both in vitro and in vivo. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy and histological analysis revealed the gradual development of corneal neovascularization, suggesting that inflammation and neovascularization could be controlled by reducing the level of oxidative stress. CeNP-induced antioxidation could serve as a new strategy in the development of long-acting functional agents for treating ophthalmic diseases.