Emerging chitin nanogels/rectorite nanocomposites for safe and effective hemorrhage control
Excessive bleeding due to trauma, surgery and diseases may cause severe mortalities. Here, an emerging chitin nanogel/rectorite nanocomposite is developed for effective hemorrhage control. Chitin chains are intercalated into rectorite and subsequent mechanical high speed stirring generates chitin nanogels, which assemble on the surface of the rectorite nanoplates through electrostatic interactions to form a sandwich structure. The in vitro experiments reveal that the nanocomposite exhibits favorable biocompatibility and negligible hemolysis (<3.5%) as compared to rectorite (40%). The nanocomposite stops bleeding in 121 s in rat tail incision and exhibits higher hemostatic activity in the rabbit artery injury model as compared to a commercialized chitosan hemostat, Celox. The efficient blood clotting activity is attributed to the induction of a coagulation cascade by rectorite and the quick adsorption and aggregation of platelets and red blood cells by chitin. The enhanced biocompatibility and hemostatic activity of the chitin/rectorite nanocomposite make it a safe and cost effective hemostat to control bleeding.