Glutathione from recovered glucose as ingredient in antioxidant nanocapsules for triggered flavor delivery†
Side streams from modern lignocellulose biorefineries have found value-added applications in various industries ranging from food to medical. Here, bioproduction of glutathione from glucose recovered from man-made cellulose fiber production was investigated. Rayon fibers were enzymatically hydrolyzed and the resulting glucose and Zn in the hydrolysate were successfully used for glutathione (15.5 mg L−1) production by an engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Next, out of reduced glutathione (GSH) in combination with human serum albumin (HSA) and silk fibroin (SF), nanocapsules were developed. Production of HSA/SF/GSH nanocapsules was further optimized by experimental design and the resulting nanocapsules were characterized by particle size, zeta potential, chemical properties (secondary structure ratios, crosslinking, and release kinetics) and thermal stability. An average hydrodynamic radius of 462.72 ± 73.36 nm and average zeta potential of −13.67 ± 0.01 mV were obtained by optimization using an experimental design approach. Increasing secondary structure ratios for HSA/SF/GSH nanocapsules indicated the successful integration of GSH into the nanocapsule shell by ultrasound induced self-assembly. Regarding possible future application as a cosmeceutical, flavor substances were encapsulated, and the release kinetics of flavor substances were studied, resulting in pH- and viscosity-dependent maximum release rates of 40.45 ± 0.35% for menthol and 38.60 ± 2.07% for raspberry ketone. Additionally, the radical scavenging properties of the system were evaluated, showing increased scavenging for produced HSA/SF/GSH nanocapsules compared to controls. Therefore, HSA/SF/GSH nanocapsules are seen as a promising new system in cosmeceutical approaches.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Open Access Articles