Two-dimensional group-VA nanomaterials beyond black phosphorus: synthetic methods, properties, functional nanostructures and applications
As an emerging group of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, 2D group-VA layered nanomaterials have been attracting increasing attention in recent years due to their intriguing physiochemical properties and functional structures for broad and promising applications. In contrast to phosphorene and black phosphorus, 2D group-VA pnictogen elemental (As, Sb, and Bi) nanomaterials have tunable direct bandgaps, high stability, charge-carrier mobility and unique in-plane anisotropic structures, giving them great prospects for applications in significant and extensive research areas. In this review, we systematically introduced the recent advances in 2D group-VA nanomaterials beyond black phosphorus. First, the synthesis methods were summarized and grouped into top-down and bottom-up categories. Then, their fundamental properties were described, referring to their band structures and carrier transport as well as mechanical, thermal, optical, magnetic and electronic properties. Subsequently, functional nanostructures were discussed, such as heterostructures, doping, absorption, pnictogen-containing hybrids and surface functionalization. Finally, potential applications were illustrated, involving catalysis, energy storage, field-effect transistors, topological spintronic devices, electronic devices, nonlinear photonics, light-emitting devices, gas sensors, thermoelectric materials and biomedicine. Finally, the current states, challenges and perspectives for the emerging 2D group-VA nanomaterials were discussed rationally. This timely and comprehensive review is attractive for scientists from different research fields and promotes the further development of low-dimensional nanomaterials and functionalized hybrid materials.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Review Articles