Advanced Engineering of Core/Shell Nanostructures for Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Reduction
The electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction (CO2RR) into useful fuels and chemicals provides a promising avenue to relieve severe energy and environmental crises. Core/shell structures hold enormous potential for CO2RR due to the strong synergistic effect and varied electronic modification, while it still suffers from the unadequate efficiency and poor selectivity. Recent achievements reveal that the advanced engineering of core/shell structure, including strain engineering (eg, tensile or compressive strain), surface engineering (eg. surface doping; surface defect; and surface reduction) and phase engineering (eg, newly formed interface) for boosting CO2RR activity and selectivity for their powerful effect on modulating the surface environment, constructing more active sites and interfaces and optimizing conductivity. In this review, we focus on the advanced engineering of core/shell structure as a promising candidate for CO2RR. First, the wet-chemical methods for achieving core/shell structure via one-step or multi-step pathways are elaborated. Then we illustrate the important role of these three strategies on optimizing the CO2RR performance: (1) strain engineering, (2) surface engineering and (3) phase engineering. Finally, we highlighted the key issues that need to be solved and the outlook that may be useful for guiding future development of this promising field.
- This article is part of the themed collection: 2019 Journal of Materials Chemistry A HOT Papers