The synthesis and electrochemical applications of core–shell MOFs and their derivatives
Core–shell MOF structural materials have become research hotspots in the field of chemical materials in recent decades. This rapidly developing research field has been intensively studied and has attracted great attention. In this review, recent strategies in the synthesis of core–shell MOF structures and their derivatives are summarized, including the in situ method, self-template method, self-assembly method and one-pot method. Regarding the properties of these materials, the core–shell MOF structures and their derivatives possess the features of high specific surface area and ultrahigh porosity; therefore, MOF composite materials show amazing potential in practical applications. In this review, we particularly focus on electrochemical applications such as water splitting reactions, energy storage devices, nanoreactors and sensing equipment. Finally, further developments of core–shell MOF structural composites, future challenges, and promising prospects are proposed.