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Understanding the boosted sodium storage behavior of a nanoporous bismuth-nickel anode using operando X-ray diffraction and density functional theory calculations

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Abstract

To improve the electrochemical performance of metal-based anodes for sodium ion batteries (SIBs), predominant efforts are focused on a nanoporous architecture, metallic alloys, and composites with a conductive substrate. Herein, we for the first time propose a novel channel-enhanced strategy to promote the Na storage performance of alloying-type anodes. We further fabricated a nanoporous (np) Bi50Ni50 alloy which has intra-lattice straight ion channels, via a facile dealloying of ternary Mg–Bi–Ni precursors with suitable Bi/Ni atomic ratios. As an anode for SIBs, the np-Bi50Ni50 alloy exhibits a superior electrochemical performance (specific capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability) as compared to np-Bi75Ni25 without such ion diffusion channels. Electrochemical measurements and density functional theory calculations confirm that the significant performance improvement of np-Bi50Ni50 stems from the intra-lattice straight ion channels, which not only shorten the diffusion distance and lower the inhibition from surrounding atoms during the Na+ diffusion, but also efficiently migrate the lattice deformation and thus improve the stability of the electrode. More importantly, operando X-ray diffraction results reveal that both the np-Bi50Ni50 and np-Bi75Ni25 anodes share a similar Na storage mechanism.

Graphical abstract: Understanding the boosted sodium storage behavior of a nanoporous bismuth-nickel anode using operando X-ray diffraction and density functional theory calculations

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Publication details

The article was received on 10 Apr 2019, accepted on 03 May 2019 and first published on 03 May 2019


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C9TA03810H
J. Mater. Chem. A, 2019, Advance Article

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    Understanding the boosted sodium storage behavior of a nanoporous bismuth-nickel anode using operando X-ray diffraction and density functional theory calculations

    H. Gao, L. Song, J. Niu, C. Zhang, T. Kou, Y. Sun, J. Qin, Z. Peng and Z. Zhang, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2019, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C9TA03810H

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